Prior to the French Revolution, there was no national flag which represented France. A variety of flags were used by troops, different types of ships and for other purposes. From 1590-1790, this flag is one of four that was used on warships and fortresses. The four flags were; a plain white flag, known as the Bourbon Banner,
The Burgundy cross, based on the wooden cross where St. Andrew was crucified, is an old vexillological symbol used by Spain, especially at sea, for many years. In much more recent times, it was used by the Carlists (Requetés) during the Spanish Civil War and afterwards, and by the Traditionalist Party (Partido Tradicionalista) during the post-Franco years.
This flag was in use during the crusades and it was one of the national emblems of England as early as 1277. In 1497, this flag was flown by John and Sebastian Cabot on their voyages from England to New Foundland and the North American continent, as well as by other English explorers, including Francis Drake, Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Sir Walter Raleigh.
All outdoor flags have a canvas heading with brass grommets. The Green Mountain Boys were a part of the New Hampshire militia during the Revolutionary War. My (Living History) unit, the 2nd New Hampshire Continental Regiment, fought with the Green Mountain Boys at Hubbardton, where we were all routed or captured. None of us would have gotten away if it had not been for the 'Boys counter-attacking the Hessians.
The best known of the British Maritime flags, or Ensigns, which were formed by placing the Union flag in the canton of another flag having a field of white, blue or red. This flag is also known as the Meteor flag, and was widely used on ships during the Colonial period. This was the first National flag of the United States.
This flag was carried by Colonel William Moultrie's South Carolina Militia on Sullivan Island in Charleston Harbor on June 28, 1776. The British were defeated that day which saved the south from British occupation for another two years. The South Carolina state flag still contains the crescent moon from this Revolutionary flag.
In June, 1846, American settlers in California revolted and proclaimed an independent republic. They raised a bear flag that had a star and stripe from "Old Glory" and a silhouette of the California Grizzly. This flag was a republic flag for one month before being replaced by the Stars and Stripes and eventually became the state flag of California.